How to write a business plan, or the basics of business planning
Until recently, writing a business plan was considered something like exclusive knowledge and art "for the elite. And owned only by experts from consulting companies. It is fair to observe that in the formation of such a stereotype role played Western colleagues.
We supposedly know about business planning for all, we have many years of experience. And if you put in the business plan is not there a punctuation mark, you don't mind. Constantly repeating the existence of their formats and approaches to business planning, they why is it never not advertise. As usual, things are much easier.
When the good old SOVIET UNION such a thing as business planning had no right to exist. Was the law that clearly defined-how, when, and how much release products. As well as the number of required resources and manpower.
For example-if you take the old enterprise plan and compare it with the new, at least in volume-then it will be approximately one tenth part of the modern business plan. Unlike the Western system planning (on which we are trying to be) from old Soviet is comprehensiveness. That is, if the domestic system is taken into account only the quantity-production and the necessary resources, West examines all aspects of the enterprise.
In addition, a planned project is much easier to implement. The second, equally significant difference is in the number investigated in planning information. The Union demand was planned, and studied in the West. The difference is big, isn't it?
To study the demand for a certain product, you must collect a huge amount of marketing information, and only then do some conclusions. Hence, the opinion is that a business plan is primarily a marketing plan. With regard to the structure of any business plan. There are two common superstitions. First, there is a uniform structure for all business plans. The second is a sequence of development of a business plan and its structure is the same. -Develop a business plan should be in strict sequence-item 1, then 2 and so on.
This is a common misconception supports existing software. It set a rigid sequence of actions. And it is fundamentally wrong. Because in practice-different enterprises practically always different sequence of preparing a business plan. Yes almost no matter what item to start plan-still have to return to it, and more than once.
Of course, this does not mean that a business plan can be entirely random. The overall structure of the business plan can be presented in the form of three blocks: the first is a text description of the activities (of the future) of the enterprise. The second and third blocks contain the information from the first block, which can be expressed in figures, graphs, etc. It can be said that the second and third blocks is a financial plan.
By the way, according to some reputable businessmen, business plan must consist exclusively of financial part. According to them, the entire mechanism for monitoring the activity of the enterprise, you must create before drawing up a business plan.
In this case, there is a risk of the company of the two monitoring systems-one for the enterprise and the other for the development and implementation of the business plan. This risk can be avoided by simply integrate an existing monitoring system at the company's business plan at the stage of its development. Overall, consisting of all three blocks plan should be required. A few tips to managers:
- First of all it is necessary to develop the organizational structure and clearly define the financial responsibility centers in the enterprise. Then connect them with the organizational structure. This will greatly facilitate the identification of actors planning.
- You should try to implement the budget office before business planning will be implemented.
- Create and implement a system to monitor ongoing activities at the company. It must, as has been said above, integrated into the business plan, in order to prevent the existence of two systems of control at the company.
Introduction of business planning system has a positive effect on the creation of conditions for investment in Russia. After all, sensibly and intelligently compiled a business plan is a "method to ask for money from an investor or Bank. While in Russia, with investment by banks is still a lot of unresolved issues. The problem is that there is no single standard business plan "for investment.
Large banks, which the minority in Russia from the principle of developing their requirements for documents of this kind, and strictly follow them. The main mass of banks are in dire need to develop common standards and requirements for this kind of business plans. Because many borrowers comes with documents, which generally cannot be judged on the State of their business. This inconsistency occurs.
The Bank may be invested funds, and it is possible that the borrower's stable and profitable business. Here arises the question of unification of such documents. Eventually, no doubt, such a system will be developed. At the same West, for example, there are no strict requirements, but there are generally accepted standards. And no problem.
Example of a successful application of business planning
In 1991, the company was involved in importing goods for the care of babies from Italy. Originally did not require any planning, as goods bought instantly. But over time the range of suppliers. And one day the company management had been surprised to learn that competitors offer a similar product to 15% cheaper. Careful analysis was made of accounting entries. It turned out that, approaching the treatment of currency, you can avoid significant costs.
In addition, the optimization of transport costs, revenue planning, and a number of similar events. As a result of the implementation of the business plan in miniature "succeeded in reducing prices by more than 18%. Most of the competitors on the other.
Such a stunning result forced company executives to think about creating a Planning Division. And in 1994, the company began to create and introduce the first business plan. From which we can conclude that writing a business plan is not unnecessary conventionality books us West, but a necessity.